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مُساهمةموضوع: بحث لغة انجليزية    الخميس أبريل 07, 2011 4:47 pm

Who stands behind the events of Sept. 11? It is true behind them?

Previously non-aligned network press that published on its "Voltairnett"
a news story that the Belgian capital Brussels will be held on
September 9 last first march is unique under the banner of "Uniting for
the truth." The demonstration, organized and actually fired from the
train station Brussels - the North after two o'clock, too. Has called a
writer and researcher and a distinguished university professor, retired
U.S. highlighting "David Griffin felt" all people of good intentions and
wills to the extensive participation in this rally. Griffin is the
opinion of one of the most prominent spokespersons for the movement "in
order to know the truth about September 11", a former university
professor specializing in the philosophy of religions Clarmont
University of California and issued more than thirty books, it has
already forming five books and numerous articles and research on the
subject of 11 events September.

Writing a reference for distinguished university professor, which caused
much controversy within and outside the United States of America,
characterized the region coherent and solid analysis and sober as always
encourages reading to learn their results from their own research and
to examine the evidence and the various Prawit.
As recognized by Professor Howard Zine "chair professor of political
science at Boston University," although the movement of traffic "in
order to know the truth about September 11" has for long been ignored by
the U.S. government and media dominant, the opinion polls carried out
recently revealed that the rejection of the novel became official As I
mentioned magazine "The Times" Rajeh, "is obvious to the eyes." It was
not surprising that the management change, George Bush and the major
media in control of tactics, as chosen by the counter-offensive since
the publication of a series of articles and reports and responses to
strike theses, and criticism of Professor Griffin felt that lying and
stabbed in what happened on Sept. 11.
Griffin was brought to view the occasion of organizing this march in the
Belgian capital and motivating message of support to the organizers of
this demonstration, and this full text:
Dear dear friends who seek the truth about what happened on Sept. 11,
2001, I apologize to you for not attending to your side in the "Uniting
for the truth" because of my night the same day in a lecture in Oslo,
but I want to motivate you through this letter and valuing the efforts
Your success of this march. The attacks in New York and Washington six
years ago left people puzzled and ready to accept any proposals and
explanations provided by the Bush administration - Cheney. The result
was within the country announced several measures violate civil
liberties on behalf of the Citizenship Act "bad-mentioned" (Patriot
Act).
We have witnessed the world's alleged war against terrorism and which
were not in fact only a war of aggression against Muslims, and a war for
oil and control the wealth of Muslim countries. This means, six years
of humiliation, torture and deaths of hundreds of thousands of people in
Afghanistan and Iraq, whether innocent civilians or soldiers of the
occupation of Veterans unethical nor illegal.
During this period we saw the whole two hours and never disguising them
by the media States and other countries allied with them. The blackout
existed before, but for this issue and the blackout hit the maximum
degree of deception, and therefore the consequences might be disastrous
and catastrophic ... (For example: Once scrutiny in the collapse of the
building VII of the World Trade Center would be any person having
knowledge of the subject that was destroyed by explosives from within
metres already pointed out that "Danny Jooenko" Dutch expert in
explosive demolition and controlled remotely). The failure of the media
in the presentation of fabrications about the official version of
democracy which threatens the lives that could not be sustained in the
absence of independent media show and expose crimes of state.
Of course the truth that the war on terrorism is bogus and wrong.
"Movement for truth in the events of Sept. 11" is motivated by the first
discovery of the truth of what actually occurred on that day by 2001 is
standing behind these circumstances attacks. The movement out of
tangible progress had been witnessed during these six years. Every day
the number who believe that the events of Sept. 11 were pursuant to a
manager from within the party Orchestra U.S. government as justification
for the application of its foreign policy defined in advance.
We have witnessed the "Movement for the truth" during the last year
significant progress and tangible in the two sides. The first regards
proud now no longer have only two movements of "scientists to know the
truth about September 11" and "scientists to know the truth and justice
on September 11," which issued a magazine for Studies on Sept. 11. Today
we have also other movements "Veterans know the truth for the Sept. 11"
and "politicians in order to know the truth about September 11" and
"pilots to know the truth about September 11" and the recent movement
was founded "engineers and architects to know the truth about Sept. 11."
Elsewhere, although there is no similar movement after a former
intelligence officers, however, many of whom spoke to the media, and
three analysts from the Intelligence Service of America (CIA) have
contributed to provide authors on this subject.
The second aspect is the steady increase of activities related atheist
tenth of September in Europe. I am convinced that for Truth Europe must
play a leading role in this area. It is clear that the growing awareness
of the subject at the horizontal and vertical depth and substance. This
march to know the truth is the first of its kind in Brussels evidence
of increased awareness and knowledge of the case. But what is still a
long road ahead of us, for this very important work you all that you
continue to put pressure on all politicians in various parts of the
world, especially in the European Parliament in Brussels, in order to
complete the impartial and effective investigation about what was on
September 11, 2001. The actual investigation and "neutral" is all that
we seek to see the truth Noor ... What is needed is to form a committee
finding new fully independent actually reveal the truth of what happened
on that day six years ago. This committee should consist of leaders
from various countries, scientists, philosophers, architects, engineers
and professional intelligence officers and military experts and other
people with the skills and expertise in various fields, so we must
listen to testimonies of people who have been rejected testimony by the
State Commission that investigated the events of 11 September, and also
listen to other bodies and organizations published reports U.S.
official, but not limited to, Fire and rescue officers, police officers
and men of first aid and people were able to leave the twin towers and
the Pentagon and the headquarters of the persons who were present near
Hanksvil Pensilvania in the state where it was said that the plane
crashed there Which was carrying Flight No. 93.
When the final declaration of the truth, we will be able to learn from
them and then begin the healing process. Perhaps we need for a truth and
reconciliation commission, but we need at the outset to know the truth
...
Henneoua you on your success in organizing this historic march. Can be
reminding history as one of the most important steps that helped uncover
the truth about what happened on Sept. 11, 2001, the truth will mean a
lot to the world beyond the suffering today from floundering and
madness. "
David felt Griffin (ended letter.)
It should also be noted that the American university professor had
published an article on 04 November 2006 on the same site under the
heading: "Reading the report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry:
115 lie about the events of September 11" refutation paragraph by
paragraph through reports and official statements of the Bush
administration.
And the relationship of this matter must recall that the events occurred
on September 11, 2001 has been erased from the collective memory: the
fire that broke out in a building attached to the White House and the
collapse of the building No. 7 of the headquarters of the World Trade
which had hampered by any aircraft. There must be amazed by this because
it is not consistent with the facts of the official government version
of events contradicts with part of it. That is why these facts were not
mentioned in the report published by the fact-finding committee
appointed by President Bush's administration.
This has previously also a journalist and publisher and promoter of
American radio and television programmes "Victor Thorne" in his book
"Operation 11 September that" the very careful analysis of the collapse
of the building for the seventh World Trade Center, which includes a
base for U.S. intelligence apparatus, saying that these events are
already subject to avoid media Talk to them often. Many consider that
the rapid and total collapse is one of the things a scientific and
puzzles in modern times.




Partners on the ground

We have provided the first plane forward in the direction of the wind,
something that is easy to stability. The second aircraft had to be
launching a turnover complex, and was very difficult because it was in
the opposite direction of the Wind, however, are also able to impinge on
the tower at a height of good and the level of compromise. The
professional pilots, who have taken the view of the subject, that few of
them can imagine such a process, and therefore categorically excluded
for amateur pilots. However, the method is beyond doubt in reaching this
goal is the use of guiding signs, a reference issued from the goal to
attract the plane flying using automatic command. The existence of a
Guide to the World Trade Center demonstrated that American radio picked
up a reference.
________________________________________


*
*
We have provided the first plane forward in the direction of the wind,
something that is easy to stability. The second aircraft had to be
launching a turnover complex, and was very difficult because it was in
the opposite direction of the Wind, however, are also able to impinge on
the tower at a height of good and the level of compromise.
The professional pilots, who have taken the view of the subject, that
few of them can imagine such a process, and therefore categorically
excluded for amateur pilots. However, the method is beyond doubt in
reaching this goal is the use of guiding signs, a reference issued from
the goal to attract the plane flying using automatic command. The
existence of a Guide to the World Trade Center demonstrated that
American radio picked up a reference.
Has been monitoring this reference because the fluctuation overlapped
with a television antennas installed above the twin towers. It is
possible that this reference was launched at the last moment to avoid
detection themselves, and thus destroyed. It is also probable that the
abductors have used the mark, because it is difficult to label one task,
although bordering the two goals.
In any case it was necessary to have partners on the ground. If so,
there was no reason for the existence of a large number of hijackers
aboard the plane. Small group was enough to divert the plane to command
automatic. It was not necessary at all, the presence of hijackers aboard
the plane, as long as the matter was not with the detention of
hostages: Through piracy computers on board the plane before taking off,
it was possible to control the leadership of the plane during the
flight thanks to Global Hawk Global Technology Hawk developed by the
Ministry of Defence [1], then becomes possible to the leadership of the
Boeing aircraft machine remotely, just an aircraft without a captain.
Then on the latest towers collapsed, causing a commission of inquiry by
the federal agency to manage urgent cases Federal Emergency Management
Agency and tasked the American Society of Civil Engineers oversight.
According to the preliminary report was behind the penetration and
aircraft fuel temperature untold weakened the metal structure of the
central towers.
Red fire fighting has refused to New York magazine, "Fire Engineering"
[2] this theory confirmed by data calculation, the structures that can
withstand long during the blaze.
The firefighters said they heard the voice of explosions at the base of
the towers, and demanded an investigation independent [3]. They question
the materials that were stored in buildings, and also, and awaiting
answers, the criminal explosions that may be behind a group stationed in
the ground.
Romero stressed the expert, the famous New Mexico Institute of New
Mexico Institute Of Minning And Terchnology collapse that could not only
caused by explosives [4], but he backed down from his opinion under the
pressure of public opinion.
How was the case, the fall of the aircraft could not explain the
collapse of a third apartment tower No. 7. The hypothesis of the
disintegration of the foundations it was excluded American Society of
Civil Engineers: actually did not take the tower and placed ads 7 but
collapsed completely. It therefore becomes not a question: "Have you
been to the tower 7 bombing?", But "What other hypothesis could be
drafted?".
Here comes earlier press for The New York Times [5]. The World Trade
Center, which we consider a target civilians, hide a secret military
target. Perhaps thousands of people have joined died because they were
used as human shields. The tower 7 - and possibly other buildings and
floors below ground - was a mask of the Central Intelligence Agency. [6]
This rule has been in office just fifties to spy on foreign missions in
the United Nations, but the era of Bill Clinton, sought from illegal
activities to include commercial espionage in Manhattan. We have shifted
resources to the main counter-espionage for the Soviet Union to the
economic war. The base became the Central Intelligence Agency in New
York the most important centre of global economic intelligence. He
opposes the transfer of intelligence activity strongly in the
traditional wing of the Central Intelligence Agency and the Military
Staff of the troops participating.
In retrieval, could wonder whether the goal which carried out the attack
on the World Trade Center on February 26, 1996 (six dead and about
thousand injured), this station is the secret of the Central
Intelligence Agency, although they were less sophisticated then.
It has been found in the twin towers, occurs when the first collision,
between thirty and forty thousand people? Each tower was composed of one
hundred and ten floors, each floor in one hundred and thirty-six at
least. The plane collided with the first floor between 80 and 85 floor.
The persons in these floors have died immediately, either because of
shock, or because of the fire that broke out after that. Persons who
were in the top floors have found themselves trapped as the flames had
spread to the top. Some of them have been forced to teach themselves
from the high altitude of death instead of combustion. In the end, the
structure collapsed towers, and all persons who were in the thirty
floors located at the top of the twin towers, were killed. The process
of account numbers may have hit at least four thousand and eighty
people.
However, according to the official toll issued on the ninth of February
2002, the two who carried out the attacks in New York, signed in total
two thousand, one hundred and forty-three dead (final outcome included
passengers and crew of the aircraft, police and Fire Victims collapse of
the twin towers and users of the twin towers). [7] and this is much
less than initial estimates and for believing that, contrary to what
seems, the attacks were not aimed at causing casualties to the high
ceiling. On the contrary, it was necessary to intervene in advance so
that many people absent, at least those who worked on floors higher, on
their offices on time.
The Haaritz Israeli newspaper revealed that the company Adigo leader in
the electronic Missionaries received anonymous letters warning fact
Offensive New York, before two hours of their implementation. These
facts have been confirmed to the newspaper by Micha Macouvr [8] The
Director of the company. Warnings have been issued to all sorts of
people who were in the northern tower, even though it is likely that
they did not take all those warnings as seriously.
We find in this scenario similar scenario attack in Oklahoma City on
April 19, 1995, in this day got the bulk of the staff of the individual
building. B. Maureen on the federal holiday of half a day, so does not
lead to the explosion of the car bomb killing of only one hundred and
sixty-eight people. We know today that the attack was carried out by
soldiers affiliated to the right-wing extremist organization is
infiltrated by the same Federal Bureau of Investigation. [9]
Thus, the Federal Bureau of Investigation in Oklahoma City, may turn a
blind eye to commit assault after Take note of its performance, however,
played down the implications.
To listen now, this strange recognition from President George Bush, this
was during a forum in Orlando in the fourth December. [10]
Question: At the outset, I should say Mr. President, that you can not
imagine all the manufacture of our country. The second thing is the
following: What was the sense when told terrorist attack?
President George W. Bush: Thank you, Jordan. Jordan knows you will not
believe me if I told you any situation me when you hear the news of this
terrorist attack. I was in Florida. The secretaries general, Andy Card -
in fact, I was inside the classroom talking about a very effective
programme to learn reading. I was sitting outside waiting for the
chapter in the moment of entry, I saw your plane into the clash - was
the TV works. Since I was also Rabbani, I said, then the captain of
scary. I thought that maybe it was a terrible accident. Then moved (the
chapter) did not have time to think about that. So I was sitting in the
classroom, and his general secretaries of Andy Card, which is sitting
there, as you can see, Lee said "the second plane crashed into the
tower, has attacked America."
"In fact, Jordan did not know at the outset of what I think, has grown
at a time when it did not occur to me to the minds that America may be
subject to attack - and perhaps your father or also think twice. During
this Whiles, started thinking of all the focus on what is the meaning
that we are exposed To attack, the hell would be the eighth exposure to
America (applause). "
So then, according to his statements, the President of the United States
saw pictures of the first collision, before it implements the second.
These images can not be the same photos by coincidence Jules and Gideon
valley. Under the Naudet brothers portray throughout the day at the
World Trade Center, did not offer the videotape they have accomplished
only after thirteen hours of the party and the agency "Gama." So it
comes, secret photographs presented to him on display in the hall
immediately surrounded by security procedures, which have been at the
school in anticipation of his visit. But if intelligence agencies had
been able to portray the attack first, because it had taken note of that
earlier. In this case, why not do anything to save their fellow
citizens?
Let us look at our information again: The terrorists are available on
logistical support from groups stationed on the ground and occupied the
guiding mark or marks and was notified of the towers in order to
minimize the disaster on the human level and blew up three buildings.
All this before the eyes and ears of vigilance by the intelligence
agencies did not move a finger. Is it possible to measure and supervise
the operation of this kind from a cave in Afghanistan, and implemented
by a handful of Islamists?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The concept of democracy:
Democracy is usually understood to mean liberal democracy and are a form
of political governance based on the overall peaceful transfer of power
and majority rule and minority rights protection and individuals. Under
this system, or the degree of lives at the beginning of the
twenty-first century, more than half the Earth's population in Europe
and the Americas, India and other parts. And most of the rest live under
regimes claiming another type of democracy (such as China, which claims
to be democratic socialism). And can use the term democracy narrow
sense to describe the system of governance in a democracy, or a broader
sense to describe a free society. And democracy in this sense is the
broader social system distinct beliefs and norms of society as a whole
in the form of social ethics and refers to the political culture and
ethical and legal concepts reflect certain basic democratic.

Old democracies

The term democracy in its ancient Greek - was his sculpture in ancient
Athens in the fifth century BC and democracy Alatinih generally seen as
one of the first examples that applies to contemporary notions of
democratic governance. Half or quarter of the population of Athens, only
males have the right to vote, but this barrier was not a barrier
nationally and has nothing to do with economic status Regardless of the
degree of poverty was both ethnically citizens are free to speak and
vote at the general assembly. The citizens of ancient Athens make their
decisions directly instead of voting to choose deputies acting for them
to take. This form of democratic governance which was introduced on the
old Athens-called direct democracy or democracy clean. Over time,
changing the meaning of "democracy" and defined the modern rose
significantly since the eighteenth century with the emergence of
systems, "democracy" succeeding in many countries of the world.
The first forms of democracy emerged in the republics of ancient India,
which existed in the sixth century BC, before the birth of Buddha. That
was the republics known as Bal Maha Janabadas Among these republics
Seychelles, which was governing what is known as Bihari day in India,
which is the first Government of the Republic in human history. Then in
the era of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC Greeks wrote
about my Saparkaye and Sambastaye, which had governed in what is today
Pakistan and Afghanistan, "according to Greek historians who wrote them
in a timely manner the form of government which was democratically and
not a royal"

Modern democracies

There was no in 1900 in a liberal democratic system and a guaranteed
right to vote in accordance with international standards, but in 2000
was 120 nations in the world, *****alent to 60% of the total are liberal
democracies. Based on the reports of Freedom House Foundation is an
American institution older than 64 years, expressed by its name and
emblem is to spread "freedom" everywhere, there were 25 states in in
1900, or *****alent to 19% of which were applied "limited democratic
practices" , 16, or 8% of the world today.
The assessment of Freedom House in this area is still controversial New
Zealand for example, apply international standards for voting rights
since 1893 (although there was some controversy about certain
restrictions imposed on the rights of Maori people in the voting). It
ignores the Freedom House that New Zealand were not fully independent
state. Also, some countries have changed regimes in 2000 after ruling
Nepali example, which are undemocratic after the government imposed
emergency law following the defeats which have suffered in the Nepalese
civil war.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Humans Rights
The Human Rights Committee overseeing the implementation by States
parties in both the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
and its first Optional Protocol on the submission of complaints by
individuals, and the Second Optional Protocol and also aiming at the
abolition of the death penalty.

According to the era of the States Parties to submit reports on measures
adopted and progress made with respect to the rights recognized in
different and any factors and difficulties that may affect its
implementation. The report was submitted during the first year of the
entry into force of the Covenant for the State party concerned, then the
States to submit subsequent reports whenever requested by the
Commission. The committee will be responsible to receive and examine
communications involving the allegation of a State party to the Covenant
that another State Party does not meet the obligations under the
Covenant, if a State party to the communication submitted a declaration
recognizing the competence of the receipt and study similar
communications for its part, must also be a State Allegedly not
fulfilling its obligations to the Covenant has made a declaration
recognizing the competence of the Committee in this regard.

With regard to the first Optional Protocol, the Committee responsible
for the receipt and examine communications from individuals subject to
the jurisdiction of one of the States Parties to the Protocol include
the allegation of violation of rights set forth in the Covenant. Under
the first Optional Protocol to persons entitled under the jurisdiction
of one of the States Parties to the Protocol and who claim that the
State has violated one of their rights under the Covenant and who have
exhausted all remedies available locally, by issuing written
communications to the Committee for consideration. The Committee could
not consider any communication is not about a State Party to this
Protocol and consider communications under this Protocol secretly in
closed sessions, and are all working documents of the Committee in this
regard confidential unless the committee decides otherwise. However, it
could be the author's and the state party concerned to disclose any data
and information bearing on the proceedings unless the Committee
requests the parties to respect confidentiality. The texts of final
decisions of the Commission regarding such communications (views, and
the resolutions declared inadmissible communication, and decisions to
discontinue the consideration of a communication) announced reveals the
names of the owners of communications unless the committee decides
otherwise.

With regard to the Second Optional Protocol, States Parties commit
themselves under Article 3 that contains reports filed with the
Commission, information on the measures taken to implement its
provisions. In accordance with Articles 4 and 5 of which extending the
jurisdiction of the Commission to receive and consider communications,
when a State Party alleges that another State Party does not meet its
obligations, to include the provisions of Protocol II issued unless the
State party concerned a statement to the contrary at the time of
ratification or accession, provided that Need to be both of the States
concerned had made a declaration recognizing the competence of the
Committee to receive complaints among States in accordance with Article
41 of the Covenant. Such as that for the States Parties in each of the
two Optional Protocols I and II, the Commission's jurisdiction extends
to receive communications from individuals, to include the provisions of
Protocol II for the States Parties unless the State Party issued a
statement to the contrary upon ratification of this Protocol or
accession to it.

It consists of the Human Rights Committee of 18 independent experts of
the "people with high moral qualities of recognized competence in the
field of human rights." They will serve as experts in the Committee in
their personal capacity, elected by States parties to the Covenant by
secret ballot, and take into account the Committee members representing
various civilizations as well as the principal legal systems.

This committee meets three sessions per year, each session lasting three
weeks, and believes its usually in March at United Nations Headquarters
in New York, in July and in November at the United Nations Office at
Geneva, and this includes the annual report of the Commission by the
United Nations General Assembly to cover all its work, including the
observations regarding the reports submitted by States Parties, as well
as decisions regarding complaints filed by individuals.

The Committee began in 1981 in the practice of preparing general
comments on articles or selected issues relevant to the Covenant, the
Committee has sought having gained considerable experience through the
consideration of reports by States parties to the Covenant, to provide
that experience through the issuance of general comments for the benefit
of all parties concerned Respect the rights established in the
Covenant, and to enhance the implementation of the Covenant more
effectively, and to draw the attention of States Parties to the
shortcomings revealed by the large number of reports, and propose
improvements in the reporting process, and clarify the requirements of
the Covenant, and support the activities of States Parties and
international organizations in promoting and protecting human Rights,
could also benefit the public comments of non-parties to the Covenant,
and also contribute to boosting cooperation between countries and in
promoting and protecting human rights globally.

The Committee is keen to follow the work of other supervisory bodies
established under human rights treaties, and seeks to facilitate the
task of States parties to several treaties on human rights to avoid a
conflict with the work of any of those bodies, and strive to harmonize
their work with them whenever possible. This, the Committee pays annual
meeting of the heads of those bodies, including those issued by bodies
of jurisprudence and general comments and recommendations, the
Commission is also participating actively in various United Nations
activities related to human rights. The Committee attaches special
attention to the initiative arising from the Memorandum of Understanding
signed by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and
United Nations Development Programme on cooperation in dealing with a
wide range of issues and activities in the field of human rights,
including the improvement and development of quantitative and
qualitative criteria to evaluate the compliance of States Parties to the
provisions Human rights treaties and their ability to exercise good
governance.


Human Rights (also called natural rights), are those of indigenous
rights in nature, without which we can not live as human beings.

Human rights and fundamental freedoms allow us to develop and use the
full human qualities and mental abilities and talents and our
conscience, and denied the spiritual needs and others, these rights are
based on the increasing demand of human life where the dignity and worth
of every human being in the original respected and protected.

It is well established that human rights generated with the same rights
and autonomy from the state, even before you like, so are these rights
as a general rule one anywhere in the globe, they are not the product of
particular legal system, is characterized by unity and similarities, as
a matter of rights that must be recognized And respected and protected,
because it is the essence of human dignity spiral confirmed by the
Almighty as saying:

((We have honoured the children of Adam and campaigns on land, sea and
We have provided them with good things and better to many of those who
created the preference))

And that there was discrimination or because of the heterogeneity of
each society, traditions and customs and beliefs. Among the basic
rights: the right to life .. No human right to life - freedom - and
personal safety .. The human right to personal liberty and the
secretariat - a fair trial .. Any trial before the case of natural and
fair and provide the rights of the defence and other

[Edit] Universal Declaration of Human Rights
In the December 10, 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations
Universal Declaration of Human Rights and issued, and the full text of
the Declaration on the following pages. After this historic event, the
General Assembly requested member countries to invite all the text of
the Declaration and "to work published and distributed and read and
explained, especially in schools and other educational institutes,
without any discrimination because of the political status of countries
or territories." As the preamble to recognize the inherent dignity of
all members of the human family and their equal fixed is the foundation
of freedom, justice and peace in the world. As the forgotten and
contempt for human rights has led to acts of barbarism hurt the
conscience of mankind, and look what was a very general mechanism
emergence of human beings a world where individual freedom of speech and
belief and freedom from fear and want. Since it was essential that the
law protecting human rights so as not forcing a last resort, to
rebellion against tyranny and injustice. Since the peoples of the United
Nations had confirmed in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in
fundamental human rights and individual dignity and worth of men and
women equal rights and have determined to promote social progress and
better standards of life in larger freedom. As the Member States have
pledged to cooperate with the United Nations to ensure steady observance
of human rights and fundamental freedoms and respect. Since the public
perception of these rights and freedoms of great importance to fully
meet this pledge. The General Assembly would call this the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights that the common standard that should be
targeted by all peoples and all nations so that everyone seeks, in the
community, always bearing in mind this Declaration, to promote respect
for these rights and freedoms through education and education and
sustained action, National and global, to ensure the recognition and
observance more effective global between Member States themselves and
the peoples of the Bekaa subject to its jurisdiction.

Article 1
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights are
endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in
a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2
Everyone is entitled to all rights and freedoms set forth in this
Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex,
language or religion, political or other opinion, national or social
origin, property, birth or other status, without Any distinction between
men and women. In addition to the above, there would be no
discrimination based on political or legal status or country or
international spot to which the person belongs, whether this country or
that spot independent or under the guardianship or non-self-governing or
under any sovereignty under restrictions.
Article 3
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4
It may not be held in slavery or bondage of any person, and prohibits slavery and the slave trade in all situations.

Article 5
To introduce any person to torture or to penalties or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Political corruption in third world countries

Known political corruption broader sense that the abuse of public power
(government) for illicit purposes are usually secret for personal gain.
All kinds of political systems susceptible to political corruption,
which varied forms but the most common are patronage, bribery, extortion
and influence, fraud and nepotism. Although political corruption
facilitated criminal activities such as drug trafficking, money
laundering and prostitution However, it is not
limited to these activities do not
necessarily support or protect other crimes.
What political corruption vary from one country to another and from one
jurisdiction to another. Political financing procedures that are legal
in a particular country may be considered illegal in another country.
May be for the police and prosecutors in some countries with extensive
powers to bring charges, which makes it difficult to put an end time
interval between the exercise of powers and corruption as in cases of
racial classification. Has become corrupt practices that are political
in some other countries in developing the legitimate and legal practices
in countries where there are powerful interest groups in response to
the desire of these groups official.
The effects of political corruption

Impacts on politics, administration and institutions:

Corruption is a serious challenge in the face of development. It is at
the political level undermines democracy and good government to float or
even change the course of the formal process. Corruption in elections
and legislative bodies reduces accountability and distorts
representation in political decision-making process. The judicial
corruption, it presents the risk of the rule of law and corruption in
public administration results in unequal
distribution of services.
Any broader sense plagued corruption in the institutional capacity of
government because it leads to the neglect of their actions and their
sources of attrition, because of any corruption sold official positions
and buy. As corruption and lead to undermining the legitimacy of
government and therefore the democratic values of community confidence
and tolerance.
Economic impacts:

Corruption also undermines economic development of causing distortions
and huge deficits. The proliferation of corruption in the private sector
to increase the cost of business by increasing the price of illicit
payments themselves, as well as to increased administrative expenses
resulting from negotiating with officials and violate conventions or
risk exposure. While some alleged that corruption reduces administrative
costs exceeded by the administrative routine, but that the presence of
bribery can also pay instructed officials to develop new and delays in
completing transactions. Yet his contribution to the increase in
inflation business expenses corruption distorts the stadium since
protects commercial firms with knowledge of the Government of the
competition would mean score
continued existence inefficient firms.
Furthermore, it generates economic distortions of corruption in the
public sector by diverting public money to invest capital projects
abound in the bribery. Officials and resort to tricks to increase the
technical complexities of public sector projects to conceal or to pave
the way for these illicit transactions, thereby increasing the score to
distort investment of public funds. Corruption leads to a reduction in
rates as well as compliance with the parameters for construction and
preservation of the environment and other controls and to the
deterioration of the quality of government services and increase
pressure on the government budget. Economists say that one of the
reasons for the different rates of economic development between Africa
and Asia due to corruption in Africa has taken the form of extract rents
resulting in moving the capital to invest abroad rather than at home
(which is the traditional pattern and frustrating that we have seen in
the rulers dictators Africans establish bank accounts in their banks,
Switzerland). The corrupt administrations in Asia such as the Department
of Suharto is often taken to obtain a share in everything (request for
bribery), but otherwise she was able to provide all conditions for
development through investment in infrastructure projects and support
the rule of law, and so on. The researchers at the University of
Massachusetts that the smuggling of capital from 30 African countries
for the period between 1970 and 1996 had reached 187 billion dollars
which exceeds the combined debts of these countries, is caused by
failure or incomplete development of frameworks which the Korean economy
in Olson's theory developed for this ). One factor behind this behavior
in the case of Africa was political instability and the fact that new
governments often confiscated by the former government assets obtained
through corruption. This encouraged officials to store their wealth
outside the country so as not affected by governmental decisions
confiscated in the future.
Types of corruption:
Bribery For a bribe is a need for both parties: it gives and who take
bribes. May extend the culture of corruption in some
countries to include all aspects of life, what makes it
difficult to maintain
any trade without resorting to bribery.

Extortion:
Extortion is a political official personally benefit from public funds
illegally. Can be compared to extortion and trafficking in the office.
The alleged George Washington Blnki representative of New York in the
Senate famous claim that there is a difference between blackmail
"Sharif" and blackmail "non-Sharif." Classic example of blackmail is the
exploitation of responsibility for decisions on the knowledge of
surveying land in the purchase of land known that his organization is
interested in exploiting the political and then sell and make profits
for such a large organization. The major gifts from one of the parties
participating in government are also classified as extortion and most
countries have laws prohibiting such action. (In the United States, for
example, every gift worth over $ 200 offer to head the country is a gift
presented to the Presidential Office and not to the person of
President. It is possible to the outgoing
President that if he wanted to buy retention).
Contributions to election campaigns and suspicious funds
May be difficult to prove corruption in the political field but also
impossible to deny its existence. That is why we see often some
politicians who have revolved around rumors of corruption. It is clear
that the politicians and because of the need to mobilize financial
support for their election campaigns are in the position at stake. They
also show clear after they have support from the party and if they were
working for the party that has funded their campaigns, which opens the
way to talk about political corruption. Supporters of politicians assert
that the similarities with the tendencies of politicians is nothing
more than a product of chance. Cynics wonder whether either pay these
parties originally funded because if politicians did not get anything in
return what they spend money. Many companies in the United States,
especially the larger ones are financed both the Democratic and
Republican bipartisan.
Because of the consequences of corporate finance for politicians such as
the concept of risk inherent in those companies but the funds to buy
the votes of elected officials, have resorted to some countries such as
France for example, to prohibit the corporate funding of political
parties and inter detail. And also because of the potential for this to
circumvent the legal prohibition on the financing of political
campaigns, France imposes a specific maximum ceiling to be spent on
election campaigns, so candidates who exceed the ceiling of expenditure
this Khater as their campaign illegal or exposure to prevent from
participating in future elections. Moreover, government funding of
political parties depending on the successes of these parties in the
elections. In some countries, political parties are managed by relying
only on the contributions of members
(membership fees in the party).
Some even criticize these legal proceedings and say that it codifies
corruption because they prefer to maintain the political status quo.
Small parties and independents often say that efforts to curtail the
influence of shareholders funds benefit only to protect the large
parties by ensuring financing their campaigns from public funds, while
limiting the possibilities of private funding of parties outside the
party of small parties. In those cases, officials take money from public
coffers to spend on their election campaigns to ensure for themselves
the continued retention of their positions and
influence and lucrative salaries.

The conditions for corruption:

• rival government structures
• concentration of power and decision-makers, however, are practically non-officials from the People
• absence or incapacity of democracy
• disability information: includes:
• lack of transparency in government (freedom of Information) in decision-making
• contempt or negligent practices of speech or freedom of the press
• poor accountability and lack of adequate financial management
• opportunities and incentives include:
• operations of large investment of public funds
• low salaries of government employees
• social conditions include:
Selfish elites closed networks and knowledge.
The fact that the population is illiterate or not interested and the
indivisibility of public opinion over the selection of policy options.

Legal disability includes:
• weak rule of law
• weakness of the legal profession
• Non Kamal electoral process
• costly election campaigns spending more than the usual sources of political funding.
• the absence of adequate oversight to curb bribery or contribute to the electoral campaigns.

Criteria for measuring corruption
The language of statistics measuring corruption is not easy as long as the
participants are not collaborators in this regard. The World
Organization for transparency is the pioneer in the field of fighting
corruption three criteria update annually to measure corruption: the
corruption perception index (based on expert opinions about the
conditions of corrupt countries), the global barometer of corruption
(based on the positions of public opinion polls and their experience
with corruption, Bribery and payors poll that looks at foreign companies
willing to pay the bribery. As the World Organization for transparent
deployment of an international report on corruption at the location ([ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
As the World Bank is also collecting information on various corruption
and disseminate it on his (www .worldbank.org / publicsector /
anticorrupt / datatools.htm), which includes a set of indicators on the
government website ([ندعوك للتسجيل في المنتدى أو التعريف بنفسك لمعاينة هذا الرابط]
/ wbi / governance / data.html). based World Organization for Control
of Corruption conducting polls realizing that there is corruption among
Onah And others. According to another poll conducted by the organization
in 2005, the 10 least corrupt countries in the world are (in
alphabetical order in English): Australia, Austria, Denmark, Finland,
Iceland, New Zealand, Norway, Singapore, Sweden
and Switzerland. According to the poll said 9 most corrupt
countries (in alphabetical order) are: Angola,
Bangladesh, Turkmenistan, Chad, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria,
Haiti.
But the results of that poll may be the subject of controversy because
it is based on the perception substantive. Providing advanced technology
in the States prepared by public opinion "least corrupt" may help them
to hide corruption from the eyes of its people or to make corrupt
practices seem legitimate. According to poll are aware of the Federated
States of Mississippi and North Dakota and Louisiana of the United
States more havoc. While mandates Hampshire, Oregon and Nebraska least
corrupt. The largest two are California and Texas in the middle, as it
comes prize California 25, Texas 29 prize in the list classified States
States more havoc.

Corruption: a different view

Corruption has always been portraying cancer killer of the economy,
especially the last one that politicians were affiliated with the
opposition and the economy in the insulting and intimidating people from
the disastrous effects on the country and people, and these statements
apply almost every third world countries. Glove picks up
and international organizations and other local
prime concern the fight against corruption
and achieve But transparency
What is corruption? Is corruption and theft in hand Is corruption really
harmful? Why rich nations seeking to combat corruption beyond its
borders? Are these people really are willing to help?
The answer to previous questions are not easy as some think, but is
extremely complicated, corruption is to exploit some link to obtain the
material benefits, that is, smelting manager for the municipality, and
get a supply of street lighting columns, despite the lack of bidding on
the contract or obtaining tender suspicious or to pay for the officer
to obtain the contract, this link called havoc another kind of
corruption is that two or more allied purpose of awarding the tender to
one, compared to the other to ensure the
company's bid for different
Noted that the above is not a robbery, for example, that stealing the
company's stores in which they operate is not embezzlement and
corruption, to play a lamp-posts in the specifications of the previous
trading is cheating and not corrupt, this must be clear to the reader,
before you proceed, because some people tend to describe each Offences
relating to money stigmatized corruption, and this is not true
The answer to the third question whether corruption really harmful? I
say that corruption is not harmful, not helpful fired fired, but there
are times where corruption is beneficial to society but essential, and
other times where harmful, or that it is linked to the development of
economic society, and the extent of his desire to maintain the existing
economic structures or modified To explain what Already say that the
community if it is based on full transparency is a contradiction of
corruption, it will not be able to compete in the areas of economic
unconventional for him Take for example the automobile industry if the
factory car in a poor country, it will seek to obtain government
contracts for the purchase of Parana course without competitive bidding,
because it Will not be able to compete with Toyota and Ford cars for
example, in holding uncorrupt, the result that the plant can continue to
exist because of what might be called a protector of corruption, after
several decades of this kind will be able to develop its production to
the degree that will allow him the ability to compete in the bidding
full transparency, Or at least create a reasonable domestic demand
allowed to continue in the market without incubators corruption here is
the role of creating new institutions that are usually weak, to compete
in the real world, without directly receiving shocks might eliminate
Another model is that there is a need narrow Assume that the State WANT
TO BUY pipes to transport water worth half a million dollars, We have no
factories for the production of this type, the solution lies in buying
from abroad, because no one is thinking in the work of a factory for the
production of such pipes is not sure of obtaining the deal, here comes
the role of corruption, While ensuring that the businessman on the deal,
he would be happy to establish a factory in the town of pipes and
operation of hundreds of unemployed, and this corruption is very useful,
because even if the state provides the money and paid the same price of
imported, they are important and display his industry, and has operated
the unemployed, And provided foreign exchange, then here Hello
corruption
Corruption is also the elimination of harmful competition, and return to
the example of former Suppose the factory pipes cost one million
dollars, and that there are two people compete to build each of the two
factories, which means the amount paid two million dollars to compete
for a contract at one million and a half, which means a total loss of
the national economy By half a million dollars, this loss can not occur
under corruption, because one of the contestants will be given a market
return for another bid coming It is clear that corruption has already
operates a catalyst for economic growth in underdeveloped countries in
economic terms But often the corruption is the only way for growth How?
In the socialist countries of central planning or like most of our
countries, the heavy hand of the state of impoverishment almost everyone
over the years of systematic destruction of the ozone businessmen and
big landowners and other owners of the initiative, making the existence
of any grounds for the lending bank would be meaningless, everybody, and
everybody's poor Never manage their own business, here comes the role
of corruption, the bank director will be willing to grant loans to those
who have the connections that guarantee the return of loans Without
corruption, the already weak banking sector in the newly transformed
state of the market economy will collapse, because it is simply not in a
situation There are known for a donor on the loan recipients of the
loans, can not work any bank
So we find corruption inherent always surges of economic growth - the
United States in the post-civil war in which he introduced the term
barons theft and may be cited many examples of the degree of
non-ratification, almost all economic forces known stages of very strong
growth accompanied by a terrible corruption have some try to Aihamna
Display corruption is not desirable for economic growth But the truth is
that corruption is the heart of economic growth actor, best
tool to get out of poverty and underdevelopment
But what the interest of rich countries in the fight against corruption
outside its territory? This question and answer became clear from the
context company owns assets worth one million pounds, will not be able
to compete with American company with capital


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